Muslims quote this to supposedly prove that Jesus denied His Deity.
First of all, this verse does not stand alone and in context, the passages are exposing the Trinity of God (Father, Son and Holy Spirit). To understand a verse, we have to see its context.
Let’s see the next few verses after this for example:
35 Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, “How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? 36 For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, ‘The Lord (Yahweh) said to my Lord (Christ), “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.” 37 Therefore David himself calls him (Christ) Lord, so how can he be his son?” (Mark 12:35-37)
As we see, right here Jesus claims to be the Lord of David. And these passages also reveal to us the trinity of God, namely the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. So how is Jesus denying His Deity?
Let’s see where Jesus quoted David from:
Yahweh says to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool for your feet.” – Psalm 110:1
To sit at the right hand of God means to be co-occupant of God’s heavenly throne, and to rule over all as Psalm 103:19 says. And this is why Jesus said:
…“My Kingdom is not of this world. If my Kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn’t be delivered to the Jews. But now my Kingdom is not from here.” – John 18:36
Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son: – Colossians 1:13
Notice that Jesus has a Kingdom that is not in this world. That’s why He is called “King of kings and Lord of lords” (Revelation 19:16)
His Kingdom is in Paradise:
42 Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come in your kingdom.” 43 And Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth, today, you will be with me in paradise.” – Luke 23:42-43
60 The high priest stood up in the middle, and asked Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you?” 61 But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” 62 Jesus said, “I am. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky.” 63 The high priest tore his clothes, and said, “What further need have we of witnesses? 64 You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?” They all condemned him to be worthy of death. (Mark 14:60-64)
1 Unlike the Isa of the Qur’an, the high priest knew that to be the Christ, is to be the Son of God which Islam denies.
2 And to be the Son of God is to be divine, that’s why he called Jesus blaspheming when He claimed to be the Son of man coming with the clouds of the sky which by the way is a prophecy of Daniel about the Christ:
13 I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14 There was given him (Son of man) dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his (Son of man) dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. – Daniel 7:13-14